Archive for February, 2011

Its pity for Christian Dior as John Galliano gets arrested in Paris this Thursday, February 24th.

The fashion icon was taken into arrest when he got involved in an argument with a couple at a bar in the Marais district, Paris. A strict action was taken after he took racial aside against the couple.

According to few sources, he was later released but as an outcome, the incident have permanently cost him his position at legendary fashion house Dior.

Christian Dior’s autumn/winter 2011 fashion show as planned for March 4 now hangs in dilemma with this occurrence.



With testing for resistance to dust mites, compression testing for performance, and comfort tests that simulate what actually occurs during sleep – the peaceful, easy going times are surely well and truly over for the bedding sector. Well-thought-out systems for mattresses create both a pleasant, comfortable climate under the covers and allow a healthy posture when lying down, to enable the body to recover completely over a period of at least eight hours. Leading textile machinery manufacturer Karl Mayer has some solutions..

Warp-knit spacer fabric by Karl Mayer

According to the German warp knitting machine manufacturer, what might sound like a daydreamer’s wish list, can be met easily but effectively by warp-knitted spacer fabrics. The voluminous fabrics are specifically designed to be compression-resistant, breathable and effective in dealing with moisture. In addition, perspiration and water vapour can be consistently wicked away through the 3D construction and the structure of the fabrics’ cover faces.

Karl Mayer says the potential offered by the production process to incorporate zones of different hardness also make spacer textiles the preferred choice for combining with other materials – a development which it as a manufacturer of machines for producing spacer textiles, has taken into account.

The company’s efficient, double-bar HighDistance HD 6 EL 20-65 and HD 6/20-35 machines are now available to the mattress industry for producing high-quality, functional, three-dimensional cushioning and padding materials. On the other hand, Karl Mayer says, the RD 6/1-12 and RDPJ 7/1 are both perfect for producing entire mattress covers or sections of mattress covers. They are also equipped with two needle bars and can therefore make 3D constructions. In addition, the company’s TM 2 tricot machine, which operates at a high productivity rate, is available for producing two-dimensional cover fabrics.

Breathable Cushioning Elements

Conventional mattresses are as diverse as the body shapes of their users. Some are made from spring interiors, latexes or foams, and then there are the unconventional types, such as waterbeds, air core mattresses, futons and, of course, mattresses that are a combination of these. Combining different materials is said to be becoming more and more important.

Mattress manufacturers are said to be increasingly using warp-knitted spacer fabrics combined with other materials to ensure that their products meet ergonomic requirements. However, Karl Mayer says, they are usually only used as the cushioning/padding element, which does not fully utilise their ability to optimise the sleeping climate. The functional 3D fabrics are usually located in a foam frame or used as a continuous layer between layers of foam, and are only rarely used as the surface against which the person lies, according to Karl Mayer. Nevertheless, Karl Mayer says, 3D warp-knitted fabrics are making inroads into the actual mattresses themselves. Some manufacturers are already making their mattresses entirely out of spacer textiles and the Southern European and Asian manufacturers are leading the way in this.

Karl Mayer launched a new double-bar raschel machine designated the HD 6/20-35, aimed at this segment of the market specialising in thicker, warp-knitted spacer textiles to coincide with the opening of this year’s ITMA ASIA+CITME trade fair. The company says it can now react quicker to growing demands by supplying efficient machines. The HD 6/20-35 is the basic version of the HD 6 EL 20-65, which is already said to be well established in the market, and completes the range of HighDistance machines. Whereas the full-size HD machine, which has a distance between the knock-over comb bars of 20-65 mm, can produce fabrics with a final thickness of 50-55 mm, the new machine produces spacer fabrics with a thickness of 18-30 mm and has a distance between the knock-over comb bars of 20-35 mm.

According to Karl Mayer, regardless of their format, all 3D warp-knitted textiles produced on the HighDistance machines have extremely reliable performance characteristics. As far as mattresses are concerned, this means that they must have stable compression values, specific spot elasticity and exceptional ventilation characteristics – functional characteristics that can be produced economically by using efficient production machines.

At a working width of 110 inches and a gauge of E 12, the HD 6/20-35 can achieve a maximum production speed of 300 rpm or 600 courses/min. The thicker spacer fabrics can be produced at a maximum speed of 200 rpm, which is 400 courses/min.

Side borders And Entire Mattress Covers

“The mattress cover has a pronounced influence on the initial perception of comfort when the person first lies down, and should therefore be very soft – a requirement that is usually met by conventional mattresses having multilayer constructions,” Karl Mayer explains.

“In this case, the conventional combinations usually consist of a smooth surface combined with nonwoven waddings or foams. The main disadvantage of joining them together by laminating or quilting processes is that the removable covers are difficult to clean and their elasticity is poor. Furthermore, the exchange of air with the surrounding environment is hampered by the high density of the material. The only breathable areas in the mattresses are usually those with side borders made from thin, warp-knitted spacer textiles having mesh constructions.”

“Modern designs are becoming increasingly popular for patterning the outer sides of the textile. In this case, the RD 6/1-12 and the RDPJ 7/1 double-bar raschel machines offer numerous possibilities. The RD 6/1-12 produces thin, 3D warp-knitted textiles with a distance between the knock-over comb bars of 1-12 mm; it can therefore work a wide range of different lappings, and is also extremely productive. This high-speed machine can reach a maximum operating speed of 475 rpm or 950 courses/min,” Karl Mayer says.

Even Wider Pattern Range

According to Karl Mayer, the RDPJ 7/1 can produce an even wider range of patterns. The creative, double-bar raschel machine is said to combine maximum efficiency and flexibility, and the distance between the knock-over comb bars can be varied from 2 to 8 mm. It can also process a wide range of different materials and produces jacquard patterns.

The machine’s EL control facility enables an even wider variety of spacer textiles to be produced. The machine’s electronic facilities permit alternating 2D and 3D zones as well as different lappings to be worked, which influences the characteristics of the fabric. The modifications mainly relate to the pile strength and the elongation values in the lengthwise and crosswise directions. The RDPJ 7/1 can be used to produce attractive, all over patterns, mattress borders whose contours match those of the end product in the appropriate widths, lettering, different lappings, and functional elements, such as buttonholes and pockets.

As well as being used in the side borders, the soft, low-dimensioned, attractive, warp-knitted spacer fabrics produced on Karl Mayer’s double-bar raschel machines can also be made into entire mattress covers. These functional cover fabrics, with their airy construction, are said to optimise the sleeping climate and they can be washed and dried easily, and then put back onto the mattress again with no problems. Karl Mayer says, the thin, 3D warp-knitted fabrics can also be quilted easily in the designs typically used for padding or cushioning materials.

According to Karl Mayer, in addition to voluminous mattress covers, flat covering materials with printed designs are also an up-and-coming trend. Karl Mayer’s TM 2 machine is said to be ideal for producing these stable, dense fabrics; the TM 2 is a two-bar tricot machine which is fast and flexible and produces top-quality products. Depending on the lapping and yarn used, the TM 2 can operate at speeds of up to 2500 rpm.

“ With their exceptional breathability and cushioning that corresponds to the shape of the body, warp-knitted spacer textiles provide a high level of comfort and enable the sleeper to rest and recover by guaranteeing deep, sound and healthy sleep – the perfect solution for getting a good night’s sleep!” says Karl Mayer.

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Geotextiles offer flexible, cost-effective solutions for civil engineering applications requiring reinforcement, erosion control, barrier and other functions.

Geotextiles were one of the first textile products in human history. Excavations of ancient Egyptian sites show the use of mats made of grass and linen. Geotextiles are ideal materials for infrastructural works such as roads, harbors and many others. They have a bright future, thanks to their multifunctional characteristics.


Application Areas of Geotextiles

Geotextiles today are highly developed products that must comply with numerous standards. To produce tailor-made industrial fabrics, appropriate machinery is needed.

Every textile product applied under the soil is a geotextile. The products are used for reinforcement of streets, embankments, ponds, pipelines, and similar applications. Depending on the required function, they are used in open-mesh versions, such as a woven or, rarely, warp-knitted structure, or with a closed fabric surface, such as a nonwoven. The basic geotextile functions include erosion control; protection; filtration; armoring; drainage; and separation, or barrier function.


Laying Geotextiles

Geotextiles with their built-in functions are virtually tailor-made based on end-use or application. Major requirements include: tensile strength; permeability to air, fluids and/or light; mesh size suited to end-use, such as filtration, sieve or separation; chemical, mechanical or thermal resistance; and durability.

Most woven geotextiles are made of filament polyester (PET), polypropylene (PP), glass, basalt, aramid or carbon fibers; with the fiber chosen based on the required functions, mainly tensile strength and a very long product life. Typical end-use applications are roads, levees and railroad embankments, among other applications. Nonwovens, usually made of PP and PET, are mainly applied for barrier function end-uses such as filtration and separation. In addition, nonwovens made of natural fibers, for example, are suitable for covering grass slopes. It is possible to incorporate different kinds of seeds, such as grass, and the nonwoven cover will eventually decompose as a green and natural surface grows on the construction.


Geogrid Calculation Table

Bast fibers, with their non-uniform fiber qualities, are beginning to be used in certain nonwoven products. The same applies for recycled fibers. Currently, very few recycled fibers are used. Also, recycled fibers do not always have the uniform properties required to form an even product. When PET bottles are recycled in a way that produces uniform fibers, then recycled PET fibers could be processed using needlepunch technology, Dilo mentions.

Coating materials play a very important role in enhancing geotextile properties and functions. Primary coating materials used include polyvinyl chloride, bitumen, latex, plastisol, silicone and other similar materials.

Global Market
According to information provided by Dornier, the global geotextiles market is estimated to have been worth $3 billion in 2009. The nonwovens sector accounts for 74.5 percent of the growth; wovens, 25 percent; and other systems, 0.5 percent. The global growth of geosynthetics alone is estimated at 5 percent annually.

According to GMA, the U.S. and Canadian geosynthetics market has a current estimated value of $2.1 billion, with the U.S. share of that market put at 90 percent and the Canadian share at 10 percent. The sector employs some 12,000 people. Within that market, geotextiles has a 32-percent share; geomembranes, 28 percent; geogrids, 14 percent; and drainage composites, 26 percent.

The nonwoven geosynthetics market has gone up and down in concert with the recent financial market ups and downs. “Geosynthetic nonwovens volume dropped precipitously during 2008 and 2009,” said Ian Butler, INDA’s director of market research and Statistics. “However, there has been considerable growth in 2010.”

INDA estimates that in 2010, the North American nonwoven geotextiles industry had a production volume of some 350 million square meters, with a roll goods value of nearly $300 million. “Most of these products are made from needlepunched PP, but there is some small volume of of spunbonded PET used for asphalt overlay,” Butler said. “What has boosted the sales in 2010 was the Obama administration’s plan to invest in the highway, airport and similar projects to provide work and reinvest in the transportation infrastructure. In discussions with people in the industry, they indicated that the low inventories of geosynthetics nonwovens at the end of 2009 led to many very busy nonwoven needlepunch producers now catching up with demand.”

While there is no specific data related to China’s geotextiles market, that country has major infrastructure and erosion control projects planned, and the Chinese market will account for the largest portion of new geosynthetics demand worldwide in the next few years, according to information posted on the website of Cleveland-based industry research firm Freedonia Group Inc.

Dornier reports the growing Indian geotextiles market has a value of some $49.6 million, but it is expected to grow to nearly $66 million by 2012. Projected annual growth is 12 percent, and long-term, it will increase to 20 percent, thanks to the further development of the country’s infrastructure.

Fleissner, Dilo and Dornier expect much better results for 2010 than they realized in the previous two years. This improvement is primarily thanks to structural adjustments, Dornier reports, but the markets as such are in much better shape than previously. In spite of the falling markets owing to the recent financial crisis, Fleissner reports constant demand for its machinery and expects to report a successful 2010. Dilo also is seeing strong recovery since first-quarter 2010 and is working at full capacity, with delivery times up to seven months.

Dornier’s main markets are Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, China and India. Fleissner’s markets include Germany and Russia as well, but also the United States. Dilo reports demand for complete production lines for geotextiles is at the moment very high around the globe, but particularly in Europe, the United States and Asia.

Important Sector
For each company, the geotextiles sector is an important market. Trützschler Nonwovens is able to deliver lines for man-made fiber production as well as calenders or bonding machines such as its Omega machine. The company reports lines already delivered for geotextile production have a production capacity of more than 1,500 kilograms per hour and even at low fabric weights of 60 to 80 grams per square meter.

Dilo and Fleissner report there is an important upswing for nonwovens in general and geotextiles in particular. The advantage of nonwovens as geotextile products is first of all their high-volume and cost-effective production. A further criterion is their ability to stretch and adapt to bumpy surfaces. Of outstanding importance is the finished product’s fabric width for effective and economical road — or, increasingly, harbor — constructions. Dilo needlepunch machines are constructed to allow a working width of 600 centimeters (cm).

On the other hand, geotextiles, which require high durability and strength, usually are made of woven fabrics. Dornier reports its weaving machines are especially suitable for production of open-mesh fabrics for armoring all kinds of constructions. Several layers of different constructions can be combined. Woven fabrics also need to be produced in a wide width. In general, machines with a nominal width of 540 cm and greater are used, while the hauling equipment for street construction is usually designed to have a 500-cm width. A rapier weaving machine with multiple weft insertion enables production of a defined product specific to the end-use.

The Future
The future for nonwoven and woven geotextiles is bright. However, for manufacturers to be successful in this market segment, there must be a lot of know-how and communication efforts with existing and potential customers. Comparing the difference between today’s customer and one of 10 years ago, one could note such comments as: “Our old customers are true professionals; our new customers depend very much on our knowledge and experience.” This means knowing exactly the markets, their requirements and possible civil engineering applications. Also, product requirements and the number of innovations are continually increasing, which makes the markets highly competitive and attractive, and creates more business.


Geotextiles As Reinforcement For Road Construction.

Infrastructural programs are being undertaken mainly in emerging markets, but Europe and the United States are seeing increased demand. Especially in emerging countries such as Brazil, India, China and Russia, demand goes along with the rising mobilization and improved public transport facilities — including new airports. The use of geotextiles significantly reduces civil engineering construction costs and drastically extends the life of any road construction. “Textiles instead of concrete” is not only a slogan, but a fact. Geotextiles have flexibility, making them better and more economical than any other building materials.

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